Stream 2 - The Transition to Euro 7 and Reduction in CO2 Emissions
Opportunities and technologies for IC engines in a net-zero CO2 and zero-emissions future
Prof Sam Akehurst Professor IAAPS - Institute for Advanced Automotive Propulsion Systems & University of Bath UK
Even the most optimistic projection for BEV and PHEV uptake has 57% market penetration by 2040, based on annual sales. Of that, ~15% will be PHEV fitted with an internal combustion engine, meaning that the majority of vehicles sold in 2040 will still feature an internal combustion engine. Therefore it is essential that we continue to consider all opportunities to minimize IC engine emissions and pathways to reducing the CO2 footprint of future vehicles. This presentation will give an overview of potential pathways to net-zero CO2 and near-zero emissions at the tailpipe, including novel engine topologies, advanced combustion concepts, future fuels and complete powertrain energy management. Synergies between electrification and IC engine optimization will be highlighted as potential pathways to significantly increase IC engine efficiency.
Managing reputation and emissions compliance through independent testing
Tom Cardy Business development manager Emissions Analytics UK
Innovative value: Historically, the focus has been primarily on emissions compliance at original certification. Due to the combination of Dieselgate and the new in-service surveillance testing under Real Driving Emissions, the notion of emissions compliance risk is much broader, and strict compliance may still come with reputational risk. Emissions Analytics’ presentation sets out the challenges and potential solutions. The data that we will present is based on our independent test program: the EQUA Index is the largest database of its kind and therefore our perspective is unique.
Exhaust systems evolution toward Euro 7 and beyond – gasoline, diesel and hybrids
Guillaume Darding Exhaust product engineer Katcon Global SA Luxembourg
European standards have significantly evolved during the past three years in terms of pollutant detection and CO2 emissions. The future Euro 7 standard and CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Emissions) until 2030 will be additional steps forward. Those changes will have major consequences not only on internal combustion engine development, but also on aftertreatment systems regardless of the engine (gasoline, diesel or hybrid). This presentation discusses current and future developments in exhaust systems to meet the European standards.
Real-life 95g/km CO2 in VW Golf TGI
David Kunkel Senior simulation engineer IHI Charging Systems GmbH Germany
CNG is the solution for future CO2 challenges. CNG reduces CO2 emissions by 23% compared with gasoline engines. With the use of Bio-CNG or E-CNG it is possible to run a vehicle on 'real 0g CO2', while electric vehicles in Germany run with a power mix of about 500g/kWh. The author has been driving CNG vehicles since 2006 with a total of more than 300,000km. Vehicle price is about the same as gasoline vehicles. Fill up in three minutes at a current fuel cost of €3.42/100km. It is cheaper and more environmentally friendly than any e-vehicle of the same size.
Requirements on regulated emissions and CO2 in the 2020-2030 timeframe
Joseph Woodburn Research scientist Bosmal Poland
Stringent targets to reduce CO2/FC in the road transport sector are demanding challenges in their own right, but they are accompanied by simultaneous demands for low real-world emissions. The much-discussed post-Euro 6/VI standards will increase the stringency of emissions requirements, while maintaining or even strengthening current requirements that emissions limits be respected under actual conditions of use. These twin challenges are subject to trade-offs such as the PM-NOx, CO2-NOx and general fuel-emissions trade-offs. Together, such effects exert conflicting demands on engines, aftertreatment and their calibration, as well as on other vehicle parameters such as weight.
Powertrain development methods for Euro 7
Simon Williams Real Driving Emissions operations leader Mahle Powertrain Ltd UK
The presentation will provide an overview of the key challenges that EU7 will present for OEMs. It will also outline the latest development techniques to enable robust emissions (gaseous and particulate) optimization used at Mahle Powertrain.
Implications of Euro 7 and global emissions standards on powertrain technologies
Michael Southcott Senior technical research analyst IHS Markit UK
In this presentation, IHS Markit will outline powertrain demand to 2028, presenting the global production outlook for all forms of light passenger vehicles. We will explain our perspective on what Euro 7 is likely to entail, then look at the uptake of technologies globally to meet these emissions standards, in particular looking at demand for them in Europe. Technologies include electrically heated catalysts, cooled exhaust gas recirculation, gasoline direct injection and supplementary exhaust aftertreatment. Reflecting on the forecast growth in electrification, an assessment will be given of demand for components that support hybridization of the powertrain.
Very-high-pressure GDI fuel system: a candidate technology to meet upcoming internal combustion engine requirements
Alessandro Cavani Combustion systems and components product manager Marelli Italy
The path toward Euro 7 and stricter CO2 legislation requires automotive manufacturers to find new solutions to achieve higher efficiencies and lower emissions from the internal combustion engine. High compression ratio and unconventional combustion systems are key areas of focus. Very-high-pressure direct injection is a candidate technology to enable high efficiency and clean combustions, overcoming standard GDI drawbacks such as knocking and soot. Marelli has developed a complete very-high-pressure GDI fuel system capable up to 1,000 bar. This session will outline the main development challenges and key features of very-high-pressure GDI fuel systems with a focus on injector, pump and corresponding control strategies.
Prof Silvia Marelli Associate professor department of mechanical, energy, management and transportation engineering (DIME), University of Genova Italy
Mobility diversification: why internal combustion engines will remain
Dr Andreas Rennet CTO Cardo Holding AG Germany
Current discussions about the right technology for mobility are often based on a one-dimensional view. There is uncertainty about which concept will be the best in terms of sustainability, plus contradictory papers and information and a missing red line in the discussion of the future of mobility. Based on the activities in CO2 and resource footprint analysis, Cardo and world watchers have made an assessment of the different mobility solutions. One surprising result is that internal combustion engines can be sustainable and thus will have a place in future mobility scenarios.
Stream 4 - The Evolution of Clean and Alternative Fuels
Low/zero-carbon energy carrier technologies for engines to enable the transition toward zero-emissions transportation
Prof Athanasios Tsolakis Professor University of Birmingham UK
Utilizing sustainable low/zero-carbon energy carriers such as biofuels, e-fuels and ammonia offers a great opportunity for decarbonizing modern internal combustion engines. However, it is of paramount importance to develop clean, energy-efficient technologies for extending the decarbonization toward ultra-low or even 'zero' emissions. Exhaust fuel reforming utilizes waste heat and chemical compounds of the exhaust to generate reformate gas, containing hydrogen, with a higher heating value than that of the fuel it consumes. This presentation focuses on the synergies between low/zero-carbon fuel reforming and the application of advanced exhaust aftertreatment systems for improving vehicle fuel economy and decreasing total emissions.
Decarbonizing road, marine and aviation transport using low-carbon fuels
Dr Kai Morganti Project manager - transport Saudi Aramco Saudi Arabia
This presentation will discuss a variety of short- and medium-term pathways to decarbonize road, marine and aviation transport by combining low-carbon fuels with other efficiency-improving measures, such as engine/fuel co-optimization and hybridization. The presentation will address the key challenges and barriers facing the implementation of low-carbon fuels, including reformulated drop-in fuels compatible with existing engines and infrastructure, and alternative fuels that may require engine modifications. Finally, the technical maturity, scale-up potential and sustainability of key low-carbon fuel production pathways will be discussed, together with the potential impacts on the global transport energy system.
Oxy-combustion engines for high-efficiency onboard CO2 sequestration – another step in the path to a circular economy
Prof José Ramón Serrano Mechanical engineer CMT-Motores Térmicos, Universitat Politècnica de València Spain
The presentation discusses the concept of an ICE with a first Brayton cycle comprising a mixed ionic-electronic conducting (MIEC) ceramic-based membrane that separates the O2 from the air so that the suction comburent stream is free of N2; a second Brayton cycle is binarily combined with the first Brayton cycle and chained with an Otto (or diesel) cycle operating with oxy-combustion. The second Brayton cycle transmits mechanical energy as well as thermal energy from exhaust gases to the first Brayton cycle. The first Brayton cycle provides to the second O2 compressed from the MIEC membrane. By means of this engine, the emission of NOx into the atmosphere is avoided by the separation of N2 in the MIEC membrane. The oxy-fuel combustion facilitates the sequestration and liquefaction of CO2 through compression from the reciprocating engine’s own cylinders.
Future transportation without the internal combustion engine?
Frank Abkenar Director - global engine engineering Ford USA
Carsten Weber Research and advanced engineering manager Ford Germany
The internal combustion engine has dominated the road transportation sector for the last century. This highly successful thermal machine has been heavily criticized recently. Based on the fundamental laws of thermodynamics, the undiminished increase of the total engine efficiency is limited. This moves 'what to burn' instead of 'how to burn' into the center of interest. A very promising alternative to classic fuels based on fossil sources is the use of sustainable fuels produced on the basis of renewable energy. The majority of the next-generation propulsion systems will continue to have an internal combustion engine as an integral part of an electrified system to ensure the best compromise regarding performance, operating range, cleanliness and cost. Therefore, the ongoing optimization of the internal combustion engine is essential for the future of automotive propulsion systems.
High-pressure thermochemical recuperation – benefits and challenges
Prof Leonid Tartakovsky Director, Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Technion – Israel Institute of Technology Israel
A new high-pressure thermochemical recuperation (HP-TCR) was developed in the Technion that enables a dramatic improvement in energy efficiency and emissions reduction to zero-impact levels without any need for exhaust gas aftertreatment. This is due to burning the produced onboard hydrogen-rich reformate, while waste heat utilization provides an additional boost of energy efficiency. Methanol and dimethyl ether are promising primary fuels, because they are excellent electro-fuels that can be produced through CO2 capturing and are reformed at low temperatures (250-300°C), enabling efficient waste heat recovery. The HP-TCR concept can be integrated with low-temperature combustion to realize the reforming-controlled compression ignition process with subsequent additional benefits in terms of efficiency and emissions.
Dr Wisdom Patrick Enang Design engineering lead ExxonMobil Nigeria
Innovation race – challenges and opportunities for the European automotive sector
Peter Richards Vice president Protolabs UK
The presentation will share the findings from a survey of over 300 senior executives from across the automotive sector on their views about innovation within the European automotive industry. It will explore the adoption of new fuel sources for transmission, where the innovation hot spots are across Europe and how the sector can evolve to meet the changing landscape in automotive.
Potential analysis and virtual development of SI engines with DMC+
Cornelius Wagner Engineer FKFS Germany
Synthetic fuels are being developed. To better assess the effects of the new fuels on the engine process, simulation models are being developed that reproduce the chemical and physical properties of these fuels. This paper examines DMC+ fuel. It is shown that the simulative conversion of a state-of-the-art gasoline engine to DMC+ fuel offers advantages in terms of efficiency at many operating points even if the engine design is not altered. In addition, a tailor-made engine concept is presented.
Work on sustainable engines with renewable fuels
Dr Lucien Koopmans Professor Chalmers University of Technology Sweden
Many countries and OEMs are communicating a focus on electrification of the transport sector and a plan to ban vehicles that operate on diesel and gasoline. As a result, many young engineers and students think the internal combustion engine will disappear in the next couple of decades, and this is affecting their career choice. But, with a well-to-wheel approach, renewable fuels can be as good or even better than electricity from a CO2 perspective. Hence, work on sustainable engines with renewable fuels is essential in achieving sustainable mobility. Furthermore, renewable fuels are often easier to implement on new and existing powertrains. Some results of research projects on engine operation with renewable fuels, such as dual-fuel operation of a heavy-duty engine, will be presented.
Systems and Diagnostics
Automated testing and automated maintenance for IC engines
Humberto Rodrigues Head of engineering Stratio Automotive Portugal
Given the increasing volumes of data being remotely acquired from vehicles, new opportunities are arising. However, new methods for analysis are required as well. Today's engineers use software tools to navigate through the data and search for anomalies and faults. But automation is required at scale, otherwise data and human resources will need to grow linearly together, which is not feasible because engineering resources are not infinite, unlike growth in data volumes. This presentation introduces how automation can be applied in the field of anomaly and fault detection, exploring a real use case that resulted in a patent application.
Combustion and renewable fuels: paths to sustainable transportation
Dr Marcus Lundgren Senior lecturer, division of combustion engines Lund University Sweden
As we are facing CO2 regulations in the heavy truck industry, among other stringent legislation, future fuels and combustion processes are all under investigation. This work investigates the possibilities with natural gas as the main fuel, and eventually biogas (among other fuels). How do we burn it most efficiently? To answer this question we need advanced engine diagnostics and full engine testing as well as simulation tools.
RDE Plus – a road-to-rig development methodology for whole-vehicle RDE compliance
Dr Phil Roberts Principal engineer Horiba MIRA Ltd UK
To ensure complete RDE compliance, a frontloading approach to vehicle and powertrain development will be adopted by OEMs. Therefore, a road-to-rig (R2R) program called RDE+ has been developed by Horiba to allow OEMs to explore all permutations of the RDE moderate and extended boundary conditions. Utilizing road, chassis dyno, EiL and virtual tools, OEMs can deploy real-world scenarios with full environmental emulation in the conceptual stage of a vehicle and powertrain program. This reduces the number prototype vehicles and climatic tests required to ensure complete RDE compliance, as well as mitigating increased costs and timescales.
Effective Lubricants and Advancement in Tribology
GPFs and engine lubricants for reduced ultrafine particulate emissions
Keith Howard Strategic technology manager Lubrizol UK
Dr Thorsten Boger Commercial technology director – global light duty Corning - Environmental Technologies Division Germany
This presentation covers an investigation done by Corning and Lubrizol focused on GPF and lubricant technology effects on ultrafine particulate emissions. Testing was performed using a mid-size TGDI vehicle tested over the appropriate WLTP cycle at a certified test laboratory in Germany. Engine-out and tailpipe emissions were measured, including particulate emissions by condensation particle counter and Cambustion DMS 500 instruments. Three types of filter were used, including a prototype next-generation unit. Two oils were tested, one with low ash and volatility, one with high ash and volatility. The effects on particulates down to 5nm were investigated.
Chemical additive manufacturers for automotive lubricants
Toby Stein European automotive industry liaison Infineum UK Ltd UK
Efficiency and lifetime improvement for engines through silicon-based nanotechnology
Stefan Bill Managing director Rewitec GmbH Germany
Rewitec is part of the chemical company Croda and has developed an innovative silicon-based nano- and microparticle surface treatment technology. The active particles use lubricants as a carrier and through adsorption build a protective and repairing silicon-based coating in engines, gears and differentials. The lecture presents scientific tribological tests performed by the universities of Giessen and Mannheim with different common engine and gear oils in combination with the additive. On test benches, a significant reduction in friction, wear and temperature is observed. All in all, these effects provide a longer lifetime and higher efficiency of engines and gears.
Hybrid powertrains: motor oil, fuel economy and RDE
Boris Zhmud CTO / head of R&D Applied Nano Surfaces Sweden AB / Bizol Germany GmbH Sweden
Increasing pressure to reduce CO2 emissions on one side, and the lack of infrastructure to support battery electric vehicles on the other, make hybrid cars an attractive option for customers. The internal combustion engine in a hybrid powertrain can be programmed to operate close to its 'sweet spot' most of the time to achieve its maximum thermodynamic efficiency. The torque fill of hybrids allows one to combine strong driving performance with very good fuel economy. The regenerative braking also helps conserve energy. At the same time, hybrids pose some new requirements for lubricants, including motor and transmission oils.
Please note: this conference program may be subject to change