Stream 1 - Engine Development Beyond the Bounds of Current Technology
Holistic ICE thermal management approach for Euro 7
Dr Cedric Rouaud Global technical expert and project director – thermal systems Ricardo UK
The role of thermal management in helping to reduce pollutants and CO2 emissions has increased in the last 10 years. Developments in the coolant and lubrication circuit of good cost/benefit ratio technologies have been made in hardware and also the control domain. The next step is to focus on a synergistic approach with the rest of the electrified powertrain and vehicle, taking into account cooling and heating requirements. The first part of the presentation will highlight the ICE thermal management roadmap and the tools (1D, 3D thermo-hydraulic steady-state and transient analysis) used to develop such technologies. The second part will showcase studies of waste heat recovery systems developed on passenger cars and commercial vehicles, which are not yet installed on current vehicles. The synergy approach with new engine technologies and electric components including waste heat recovery can be maximized on hybrid electric vehicles.
Gasoline water direct injection - an overall system comparison
Christoph Heinrich Professor University of Applied Sciences Trier Germany
Water injection into internal combustion engines has long been known as a powerful tool to increase maximum power and decrease emissions. Due to tighter emissions legislation, it might become a key feature of future gasoline engines. This talk will focus on different approaches to bring the water in, such as low-pressure injection into the air induction, direct water injection by an additional injector, or direct injection in the form of fuel-water emulsions. The conclusions will be based on our own lab testing results.
Water injection for full-time lambda 1 high-load operation
Sam Barros Director of engineering Nostrum Energy USA
This session will present laboratory research and in-vehicle test data from various water injection strategies that Nostrum Energy has researched as a solution to thermally manage high engine outputs in a future where RDE testing means no longer being able to rely on over-fueling for high-load operation.
Unleash the full potential of water injection through onboard water generation
Guillaume Hébert Senior manager R&D - clean powertrain thermal systems Hanon Systems Czech Republic
Water injection in gasoline internal combustion engines is one of the technologies being investigated to improve thermal efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions. Mass deployment of such a solution is pending the availability of a reliable water source. Investigations have shown that exhaust gas condensates can solve this engineering problem. The feasibility of such a system has been physically demonstrated. A final correlated simulation model will enable the full potential of water injection to be unleashed when combined with an onboard water generation system.
Mahle jet ignition for improved efficiency with stoichiometric combustion
Dr Mike Bassett Chief engineer Mahle Powertrain Limited UK
The pre-chamber-based jet ignition concept produces jets of partially combusted species that induce ignition in the main combustion chamber, enabling rapid, stable combustion. The potential passive jet ignition, combined with high compression ratio, Miller cycle and EGR to provide high-efficiency engine operation, has been presented previously. This study demonstrates the capability of the passive pre-chamber to enable whole map λ=1 operation and both idle stability and catalyst light-off capability, comparable to a conventional spark plug. Data showing the engine-out emissions and compatibility with conventional aftertreatment systems, along with practical considerations for use in vehicle applications, are also discussed.
Practical implementation of a dynamic switchable over-expansion engine
Dr Arjen de Jong CTO Econamiq Netherlands
Conventional four-stroke engines are limited in expansion and therefore have significant thermal losses. Using today’s cylinder deactivation technology it is possible to dynamically switch between four-stroke operation and combined-cycle over-expansion with proven fuel efficiency and power gain up to 20%. Using existing engine architecture and layout implementation of such technology is cost-effective, especially for (P)HEV. The presentation will discuss a simulation study and engine test results with an outlook for the industry.
A solution to the wicked problem of air quality and climate change
Prof Robert Morgan Professor of thermal propulsion systems, School of Computing, Engineering & Maths Advanced Engineering Centre University of Brighton UK
Despite sustained efforts for over two decades, air quality in many of our cities remains poor and global temperatures continue to rise. The internal combustion engine is seen by many as part of the problem but others worry the ‘dash to electrify’ will simply move the problem to somewhere else. The lack of consensus, failure of well-intended solutions and increasing hostility between stakeholders are more characteristic of the wicked problems encountered in the social sciences and business worlds than in science and engineering. Engineers are very good at answering questions and solving problems but only if they are asked the right question. In this paper, we will describe a holistic study of the transport and energy systems. The study led to a set of interesting questions from which a novel ‘combustion-focused’ approach was used to define a clean, efficient combustion system supplied by a sustainable source of energy.
Toward 59g/km: an overview of the most promising technologies for spark-ignition engines of the future
Luciano Rolando Assistant professor Politecnico di Torino | Energy Department (DENERG) Italy
Nowadays the combined use of downsizing and turbocharging is considerably improving the efficiency of spark-ignition engines, thus closing the gap with diesel engines. Nevertheless, the 37.5% reduction in CO2 emissions in the transport sector, requested by the EU for the next decade, implies the development of innovative solutions to produce an additional step forward in the fuel economy of the next generation of spark-ignition engines. In such a framework, this presentation will provide a comprehensive overview of the most promising technologies currently being investigated by car manufacturers to comply with future GHG emissions targets. Particular attention will be devoted to the analysis of knock-mitigation techniques and advanced combustion processes, which can enable the achievement of engine thermodynamic efficiency close to 50%.
High-efficiency, low-emissions drive adoption of the OP engine
Bruno Linsolas Regional vice president, Europe Achates Power Inc France
This presentation will highlight Achates Power’s work in achieving ultra-low emissions, high fuel efficiency, rapid warmup and catalyst light-off in the light-, medium- and heavy-duty engine segments using existing and future renewable fuels. The modern opposed-piston (OP) engine has the potential to deliver ultra-low-criteria pollutant emissions while simultaneously reducing fuel consumption by up to 30% compared with conventional engines. Manufacturers face the challenge of meeting future emissions and fuel economy standards in a cost-effective manner. Compliance with these regulations requires considerable financial investment in new technologies, all designed to increase fuel efficiency while decreasing emissions.
Review of SI gas engine technologies for sustainable mobility
Dr Carlo Beatrice Senior scientist Istituto Motori CNR Italy
The presentation will provide a technical review of the most powerful advanced technologies (ready or under development) able to make the gas engine competitive with alternative propulsion systems in terms of GHG emissions in the lifecycle.
Stream 3 - Diesel Beyond 2030
Diesel Dynamic Skip Fire (dDSF): simultaneous CO2 and NOx reduction
Dr Hans-Josef Schiffgens Business development executive Tula Technology Germany
Reductions in CO2 and NOx emissions present conflicting challenges for diesel engines as worldwide standards continue to become more stringent. Dynamic Skip Fire (DSF), in production on SI V8 engines, has potential in diesel vehicles as dDSF to provide benefits in reducing CO2 and NOx simultaneously. DSF is an advanced cylinder deactivation technology that enables any number of cylinders to be dynamically selected to operate on an event-by-event basis. NVH is proactively mitigated by manipulating the firing sequence and cylinder loading to avoid vehicle resonances. The NOx reduction is mainly achieved by optimized exhaust temperature control.
Pathways for next-generation diesel engines toward beneficial participation in sustainable mobility and transportation
Thomas Körfer Group vice president - diesel powertrains business unit FEV Group Germany
Improved environmentally friendly – especially low-GHG-emitting – powertrain systems are required for future personal mobility and transportation. Since the release of the new European CO2 targets – which set ambitious reduction requirements – multifaceted developments have been initiated to meet them. In addition, the short-term achievement of extremely challenging real-world pollutant emission standards requires that these emissions be reduced close to a near-zero level. Further optimization of the classical ICE fuel specifications and properties – as well as an increased level of tailored powertrain electrification – provides good potential to simultaneously achieve these parallel targets. In this presentation, the corresponding technical roadmaps for light-duty diesel engines toward future market demands with near-zero pollutant emission behavior and superior GHG emission performance are analyzed and presented for sustainable use in the future.
Modern diesel emissions achievements and likely Euro 7 impacts
Dr Mark Peckham Director Cambustion Ltd UK
The improvements in emissions characteristics from a Euro 6d-TEMP passenger car diesel are compared with older vehicles with special regard to their transient NOx emissions. With future emissions legislation likely to include more scrutiny of NH3, this component is of particular concern and the dynamics of its emission with road conditions and exhaust temperature are discussed.
Hilberg Engine – first engine with VCR and double expansion
Svein K Aasen CEO Patentec AS Norway
The technology is based on a complete redesign of the very core of today’s engines and provides a compact, extremely low-weight (30-50% lower) and powerful ICE. It is scalable and applicable in most ICE designs, compact and vibration free. The first prototype is built and running. A unique redesign of the crankshaft has made it possible to realize technical principles that until now have not been technically and commercially viable. The Hilberg Engine is a new tool to improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions.
Particle number and unregulated pollutant emissions: a study of DPF regeneration
Anna Krajinska Emissions engineer Transport & Environment UK
This talk will focus on particle number and unregulated pollutant emissions from two Euro 6d-temp diesel vehicles, with a particular focus on emissions during DPF regeneration events. The current regulatory approach and the potential to better regulate DPF regeneration will also be explored.
Sustainable energy carriers for application in heavy-duty propulsion systems
Dr Barbara Graziano Project manager FEV Europe GmbH Germany
In 2018 the ICCT indicated that the transportation sector was responsible for 32% of the total CO2 emission in the EU. HD vehicles contributed significantly. In this session, the combustion characterization of a paraffinic biofuel (via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) and 1-octanol (via Power-to-X) are presented. An ignition delay analyzer, a high-pressure chamber and an HD single-cylinder engine were used to assess the fuels’ impact on combustion and emissions. CAE-Support was adopted to investigate the additional benefits of a tailored combustion system. Thanks to the fuels' paraffinic and oxygenated content, reduced soot at same NOx was observed. Generally, increased indicated efficiency was observed.
Onboard cylinder pressure sensing system
Enrico Corti Founder Alma Automotive Srl Italy
The use of piezoelectric cylinder pressure sensors is common during engine testing, but cylinder pressure information is also becoming mandatory in several onboard applications, where low-temperature combustion (LTC) approaches require feedback control of combustion, due to poor combustion stability and the risk of knock or misfire. The use of cylinder pressure signals would simplify the implementation and calibration of control and diagnostic strategies, such as knock and misfire detection. However, costs are often not compatible with onboard use. Sensors mounted outside the combustion chamber, such as piezoelectric washers, could provide significant yet affordable information.
The Future of Engine Hybridisation
Overall efficiency optimization of a combined-cycle machine for a range-extended electric vehicle: methodology and testing of ICE coupled to WHR system
Dr Wissam Bou Nader Research and development engineer - advanced research and innovation projects Groupe PSA France
Waste heat recovery (WHR) systems constitute a promising solution for reducing vehicle fuel consumption in order to meet the CO2 regulation targets by 2025. Overall efficiency optimization of a combined cycle machine consisting of a reciprocating internal combustion engine (ICE) and a bottoming WHR system for a range-extended electric vehicle (REEV) is studied. To clearly present our studies, this presentation is divided into two parts. In Part A, a methodology is proposed to improve the overall operational efficiency for such a combined-cycle machine. In Part B, the application's different systems are integrated in REEV.
Hydrogen ICE versus fuel cells: using numerical modeling to solve the dilemma
Dr Carlo Locci Global application specialist: hydrogen fuel cells Siemens Digital Industries Software Germany
Hydrogen is seen as one of the main energy vectors of the future. Such technology still faces several challenges in terms of both production/storage and usage. In the automotive sector, hydrogen can be used in internal combustion engines and fuel cells. The two systems are extremely different in terms of efficiency and performance. In this presentation, the two technologies are discussed and analyzed from the numerical modeling perspective.
Diversity in transportation: why a mix of propulsion technologies is the way forward for the future fleet
Dr Peter Kelly Senecal Owner and vice president Convergent Science USA
Transportation today is almost exclusively powered by the internal combustion engine (ICE). Although engines have become considerably cleaner and more efficient over the last few decades, human health and environmental concerns have led several governments around the world to propose bans on diesel and gasoline cars. The electrification of transportation, while often touted as the only way to mitigate vehicle emissions, comes with its own set of concerns and challenges that must be considered when developing future transportation technologies. Furthermore, there is still significant untapped potential in ICE concepts and the fuels they use. This presentation argues that hybrid systems are the fastest way to reduce CO2 emissions from vehicles and that, when judged on a lifecycle basis, the vehicle technology with the least environmental and health impact is highly region dependent. Therefore, a mixture of transportation technologies is necessary in the future fleet.
Ultra-lean combustion: the essential pillar of a sustainable internal combustion engine
Prof Fabio Bozza Professor Università di Napoli Federico II Italy
Highly efficient spark-ignition engines suitable for a sustainable mobility scenario mainly exploit the concept of diluted combustion, achievable through either flame propagation, compression ignition or a combination of both. The presentation focuses on active pre-chamber ignition systems, able to sustain stable flame propagation in ultra-lean conditions (lambda>2). Experimental results and simulation analyses obtained as part of the EAGLE (Efficient Additivated Gasoline Lean Engine) H2020 project are summarized, demonstrating the feasibility of a peak efficiency close to 50%. The EAGLE engine, integrated in a plug-in hybrid powertrain, complies with Euro 6 emission limits, producing 50g CO2/km over the WLTC.
Electrification offers strong advantages for many but falls a long way short of fulfilling all of society’s mobility requirements
Paul Freeland Principal engineer Cosworth Limited UK
Electrification offers some strong advantages for many transport applications in reducing CO2 and localized polluting emissions, but falls a long way short of fulfilling all of society's requirements for social and business mobility. This presentation takes an independent, pragmatic approach to what is really required to achieve the targets laid out in the 2015 Paris Agreement, and looks at what can be achieved with technology as we know it to reduce greenhouse gas concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere and improve local air quality issues.
Zero emissions: not as EV as you think!
Dr Graham Conway Principal engineer Southwest Research Institute USA
This presentation discusses some of the challenges of battery electric vehicles today and why they should not be called ‘zero emissions’. The talk also discusses how scaling batteries for larger applications such as trucks, ships and planes has many challenges. There will also be discussion of the flaws in industry measurements of CO2, and why lifecycle analysis is critical. Finally, the presentation will examine the role that electrification can have in unlocking further potential in the ICE. The summary is that the ICE will be around for a long time – it will adapt, evolve and survive.
Delta’s catalytic generator – the perfect range extender
Nick Carpenter Engineering director Delta Motorsport UK
Starting from a clean sheet of paper, Delta has developed a lightweight and compact 35kW generator that is ideally suited to use as a range extender for passenger cars and small commercial vehicles. The presentation will describe Delta’s perspective on the role that range-extended EVs can play in dramatically reducing CO2 and other emissions while also offering OEMs a vehicle architecture that is more attractive (to them and their customers) than BEV. The presentation will also provide an overview of the catalytic generator, explaining why it is such a good fit for this purpose.
Advanced Under-hood Components and Materials
Enabling downsizing and hybridization using digitally controlled hydraulics
Daniel Abrahams Senior research and development engineer Artemis Intelligent Power UK
Digital displacement pump-motors represent a step-change in the advantages of hydraulic machinery; they are extremely efficient, have high bandwidth control and eliminate the high-frequency noise typical of conventional machines. The technology has been demonstrated as a low-cost alternative to electrics in vehicle transmissions and brake energy recovery systems, on prototype vehicles including a passenger car, truck, bus and train. The technology can also be used to create an engine-hybrid package, allowing engine downsizing, with short-duration peak loads supplied by the pump-motor. This talk will present real-life fuel measurements, comparison with simulation and discussion of the advantages.
Electric turbocompounding for recovering energy in internal combustion engines
Dr Aman Mohd Ihsan Mamat Associate professor Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia
The thermal efficiency for internal combustion engines is less than 30%. Most of the energy is wasted to the environment via heat transfer and exhaust gas. Some of the wasted energy can be recovered in the exhaust pipe by using a bolt-on concept of electric turbocompounding. The electric turbocompounding consists of a turbine that is used as an exhaust expander, a shaft that is used to deliver the recovered power, and a high-speed electric generator. The presentation will focus on the design of the electric turbocompounding, prototype development that was used in 3D metal printing, and simulation and testing results.
High-performance alloys to drive fuel efficiency
Steffen Mack Business development manager Materion Germany
The reduction of carbon emissions while maintaining power and performance in internal combustion engines is critical for reductions in global emissions of greenhouse gases. Although current engines have gone some way toward achieving lower emissions, savings are limited due to the materials used in engine components. This paper will outline some of the potential material alterations that enable significant emission savings while maintaining power by enabling the redesign of critical components. Results of engine testing on a commonly available engine will be presented, showing significant reductions in emissions.
Lightweight pumps and compressors for alternative drives
Gerald Feichtinger Head of fluid mechanics and test Bitter GmbH Austria
This presentation gives an overview of alternative drives and alternative fuels, including targets and the latest trends. It deals in detail with the required pump functions and media, and the required pump applications, and how they are solved with centrifugal and displacement pump types. Finally, the presentation will discuss some lightweight pump solutions.
Friction reduction by durable ePTFE coating for elastomer dynamic seals
Christian Wimmer R&D manager W. L. Gore & Associates GmbH Germany
This talk introduces a new material based on expanded PTFE and graphite that can be applied to elastomer parts without adhesive. It gives such composites a permanent low-friction, abrasion-resistant surface that remains elastic. Discussed applications include shaft seals (e.g. crankshafts) and valve seals (e.g. in cooling or air-conditioning compressors). The new material can help to reduce power/torque loss, increase reliability and thus contribute to CO2 reduction and efficiency gains.
Simulation methodology for an additive manufactured lightweight cylinder head and crankcase
Can Kayacan Research associate commercial engines - simulation RWTH Aachen University Germany
The latest developments in additive manufacturing make this production technology attractive for the automotive industry. AM makes a borderline lightweight design achievable even for large components such as cylinder heads and crankcases. Within the scope of the presented work, these components are being designed for production using the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) process, which offers new degrees of freedom; for example, complex water jackets are no longer restricted by the typical manufacturing constraints of casting core. To design a lightweight borderline cylinder head and crankcase for series production, the new challenges within the established simulation method should be addressed and the methodology adapted. A topology optimization based on the finite-element method can identify the areas where material can be eliminated or porous material used. Therefore, CAE plays a significant role in the overall development process of lightweight components with functional integrations. Only with the help of the newly developed and verified CAE methods can the full potential of the innovative lightweight concepts be realized.
Please note: this conference program may be subject to change